An adverb tells when, where, or how something happens. Although adverbs often modify verbs, they can also describe an adjective or another adverb.
Although children may recognize and use simple adverbs from an early age, adverbs are not typically taught until Grade 2, and examples in Grades 2 to 4 use adverbs to modify only verbs.
Students learn that many common adverbs end with -ly, and word study activities can include practice in forming adverbs from adjectives (quick/quickly, happy/happily). In Grade 5, students learn that an adverb can also modify an adjective or another adverb.
Students may confuse adjectives and adverbs, so word study should provide many opportunities for students to distinguish between these two parts of speech. In Grade 4, word study for adverbs should also include examples of comparative and superlative adverbs (more quietly, most quietly), including irregular forms, such as well/better/best and badly/worse/worst, as well as additional practice with the relative adverbs: where, when, and why.
Common Core State Standards Related to Adverbs
Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe foods that are spicy or juicy).
Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy).
Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe people who are friendly or helpful).
Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
3-5 Adverbs: honestly, mostly, evenly, nearly, angrily, roughly, cleverly, busily, usually, keenly
6-8 Adverbs: cheerfully, valiantly, nervously, never, fatally, always, certainly, daily, selfishly, wearily
9-12 Adverbs: optimistically, suspiciously, very, defiantly, wholly, ultimately, generously, yesterday, boastfully, potentially, more, eventually, punctually, deliberately, sometimes
Adverbs of Frequency: always, never, usually, often, daily, rarely, annually, frequently, sometimes, continually
Adverbs of Manner: carefully, quickly, happily, correctly, silently, swiftly, bravely, urgently, fiercely, reluctantly
Adverbs of Place: here, near, there, inside, downstairs, nowhere, underground, upright, far, abroad
Adverbs of Time: yesterday, already, later, soon, now, finally, recently, early, then, eventually
VocabularySpellingCity.com provides word lists, printables, and interactive games and activities that give students the opportunity to use adverbs including comparative and superlative adverbs and relative adverbs.
Try WhichWord? Sentences with the 3-5 Adverbs list.